State of play wind capacity installed and 2020 target
Cumulative onshore capacity - end 2014: 3,574.4 MW
NREAP Target 2020 (onshore): 2,621 MW
Legal framework for information and engagement measures
Denmark is striving to become fossil fuel-free by 2050. The Government's Energy Agreement 2012 aims to put in place 1,800 MW of new wind turbines on land by 2020, whilst over the same period it is expected that 1,300 MW will be taken down. Since 2012, 95 MW have been decommissioned and replaced with 1,156 MW (end November 2015). Therefore, there is currently a backlog on both the dismantling of older winfarms and on the establishment of major new wind turbines in Denmark.
According to the Planning Act, any wind farm projects with blades higher than 80m or with more than 3 wind turbines need to provide an assessment of the impact on the environment (EIA). The EIA is prepared by the applicant following the municipality's instructions. For smaller wind farms, the municipality must assess the likely impact and whether or not an EIA is required. In accordance with the Planning Act, the local plan should be presented for public consultation. There is no specific requirement for a public meeting, but public meetings are usually held.
Legal framework for innovative financial measures
Under the Promotion of Renewable Energy Act (2008) the Danish Government standardised public participation in wind energy development and put forward a decommissioning process for existing wind turbines. New policy instruments were introduced which offer benefits to the local community and support project development and management by local people to help generate local economic benefits (Prof. Birgitte Egelund Olsen, Law Department, Aarhus University, 2013).
These instruments include:
- A guarantee fund to support the financing of preliminary investigation by local wind turbine owners’ associations or groups. The amounts that can be borrowed are between: 500,000 Danish krone, 67,000 euro.
- The scheme for buying shares, a mandatory auctioning of a minimum of 20 % of the shares in a wind turbine over 25 m high to neighbours living within a 4.5 km limit The price per share is typically between 2, 500 and 5,000 Danish krone (163 and 327 euro per share).
- The scheme for loss of value (property) to compensate property owners where value had been impacted.
- The green scheme, a fund to enhance local scenic and recreational values: municipalities in the vicinity of new wind turbines have the possibility to apply for grants for various types of works and cultural and informational activities in local associations, etc. Grants awarded are in the range of 88,000 Danish krone/MW , 12,000 euro/MW.
More information is available on the Danish Energy Agency website.